Life Extension

Recommendations : 12 Steps to Achieving Ultimate Health

What makes Life Extension® formulations
different from commercial varieties?

Life Extension customers insist on our
premium-grade nutrient formulas to protect
their precious health. What differentiates
Life Extension from anything else on the
commercial market are the unique benefits
that our scientifically-validated nutrient
formulations provide to the aging body.

For example, hundreds of commercial companies sell fish oil softgels. The published medical literature, however, indicates that a combination of fish and olive oil polyphenols provide crucial additive benefits.

Fish oil is highly susceptible to oxidation. Scientific studies indicate that sesame lignans protect against fish oil oxidation and enhance the beneficial effects of EPA and DHA in the body.

Our pure, stable, and easy to tolerate fish oil is sourced from Alaska Pollock, also known as Alaskan cod, that are wild caught in the cold, clear waters of the Bering Sea in Alaska. It is processed within hours of harvest for exceptionally fresh fish oil and is harvested in a Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) certified fishery — meaning the fishery meets the highest standards for sustainability practices and is focused on preservation of the environment and ecosystem. That is why so many Life Extension customers choose Super Omega-3 EPA/DHA with Sesame Lignans & Olive Extract. It is the most advanced scientifically designed fish oil supplement available anywhere and has received the International Fish Oil Standards’ highest 5-Star rating.

Healthy Bone Density Requires
More Than Just Calcium

Today’s epidemic of bone loss has resulted in many women taking calcium supplements. Yet peer-reviewed scientific studies make it abundantly clear that a wide range of nutrients beyond calcium are needed to maintain healthy bone density.

Life Extension customers obtain the full spectrum of bonebuilding nutrients in comprehensive formulas like Bone Restore available only from Life Extension.

Why Your Resveratrol May Not
Deliver Expected Results

Media reports on the anti-aging effects of resveratrol have turned this nutrient into a blockbuster. Yet few commercial dietary supplements provide the trans-resveratrol needed to emulate the favorable studies that news reporters have gotten so excited about.

Ignored is the hard science showing the additive and synergistic benefits of combining trans-resveratrol with quercetin, fisetin, proanthocyanidins, and trans-pterostilbene.

Life Extension’s Optimized Resveratrol with Nicotinamide Riboside or the CR Mimetic Longevity Formula provide the full spectrum of effects one would expect when taking a resveratrol supplement.

Is Your Curcumin Being Absorbed?
So many forward-thinking doctors are extolling the virtues of curcumin that it has become a household word in the realm of health enthusiasts.

The problem with curcumin is that relatively little is absorbed into the bloodstream, thus necessitating large doses to obtain the desired benefits. Life Extension uses a patented, bioenhanced preparation of curcumin that has been shown to reach up to seven times higher concentration in the blood than standard curcumin. What’s more, Advanced Bio-Curcumin® with Ginger & Turmerones provides additional compounds to further boost curcumin’s potency and absorption.

Is Your CoQ10 Enough?

Life Extension customers rely on Super Ubiquinol CoQ10 with Enhanced Mitochondrial Support™ to help increase ATP mitochondrial energy output. Of equal concern is the decline in the number of mitochondria in aging cells that leads to a precipitous drop in energy production.

An essential nutrient called PQQ (pyrroloquinoline quinone) has been shown to support mitochondrial biogenesis (the formation of new mitochondria) by activating genes that promote new mitochondria generation for more youthful cellular function.

PQQ supports mitochondrial function by protecting mitochondria from free radical attack, favorably interacting with genes involved in mitochondrial health, and supporting the defense of mitochondrial DNA.

And when taken in conjunction with CoQ10, PQQ works to enhance mitochondrial energy output and support cognitive health. Life Extension customers can obtain ubiquinol CoQ10 and PQQ in ONE advanced formula!

Are You D-ficient?

The average dose of vitamin D in typical multivitamins is only around 1000 IU, far lower than the minimum amount needed to achieve optimal blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D.

Life Extension conducted its own study of over 13,000 blood results and found 85% of the supplement users tested had insufficient 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. This prompted Life Extension to double the potency of vitamin D in its multinutrient formulas (to 2,000 IU) and recommend that most supplement users take an additional 5,000 IU of vitamin D on top of that!

No nutrient has more recent scientific substantiation than vitamin D, yet those who rely on commercial multivitamins are obtaining woefully inadequate amounts of vitamin D.

Life Extension customers who use either Life Extension Mix™ (tablets, capsules or powder) or Two-Per-Day Tablets or Capsules obtain far more vitamin D than commercial brands, plus far greater potencies of other vitamins and minerals.

That’s What Makes Life Extension Different

If you are a long-time supplement user, the information you’ve read so far should be an eye-opener.

If you are a relative novice as most maturing humans are, you’ve just learned why many commercially sold dietary supplements fail to deliver optimal results to the consumer.

As you will read in this Annual Directory, no organization is more dedicated to battling the ravages of aging than Life Extension. Our purpose is to vanquish human suffering and needless loss of life. Your support through supplement purchases enabled Life Extension to fund over $150 million in groundbreaking scientific research since its inception.

The immediate benefit to you is access to the world’s most scientifically advanced health supplements. Through our fully referenced publications, you will discover innovations to help you achieve optimal health and longevity.

The Life Extension Annual Directory 2015–2016 is compiled to enable you to easily identify novel formulas best suited to help you maintain or improve your precious health. We invite you to use it as a source of information for customizing your own prevention program. A complete and up-to-date listing of Life Extension products can be found at

Your Complete Satisfaction is Guaranteed

We’re so confident that our products are the best available, we offer a 100% satisfaction guarantee that is one of the strongest in the industry — just one more thing that sets Life Extension supplements apart.* Here’s another: Life Extension has earned GMP (Good Manufacturing Practices) registration from NSF International, widely recognized as an objective “seal of approval” signifying the meeting or exceeding of GMP requirements and industry standards/best practices for quality.

Feel free to consult our team of Health Advisors if you have any questions by calling 1-800-226-2370 any day or e-mailing

Don’t die from
a deficiency

Few doctors are aware of how shockingly deficient Americans are in essential nutrients. It’s a fundamental fact that the vast majority of Americans fail to obtain even the tiny amount of nutrients in their diets that the medical establishment says are needed. Take vitamins D & E for example.

Over the past several years scientists have validated the critical role of vitamin D in regulating a host of bodily functions. Yet still there is evidence of a widespread vitamin D insufficiency. This has led to recommendations for Americans to increase their vitamin D intake to 5,000 IU per day or higher. Most commercial multivitamin supplements contain less than 1,000 IU of vitamin D. Life Extension Mix™ and Two-Per-Day formulas contain 2,000 IU. Most Life Extension customers also take a 5,000 IU softgel of vitamin D3 each day to achieve optimal blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, which are between 50-80 ng/mL.

A recent published study in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition looked at blood levels of vitamin D (measured as 25-hydroxyvitamin D) in 9,949 people aged 50-74 for a median of 9.5 years. Compared to those with sufficient vitamin D levels, those who were deficient had a 71% higher rate of dying from any cause.1

Many Americans also supplement with vitamin E to obtain its antioxidant benefits. The federal government, however, says only 15 mg of vitamin E (22.5 IU) (in the form of d-alpha tocopherol) are needed. The Journal of The American Dietetic Association says that 92% of American men and 97% of American women do not even consume the recommended 15 mg (22.5 IU) in their diets!2

In January 2008, the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) published findings from a study that measured vitamin E levels in people 65 years and older. It showed that those with the lowest blood levels of vitamin E were 62% more likely to suffer physical decline over the three-year follow-up period.3

But these two vitamins are just the beginning. Most diets fail to provide even the minimum amounts of nutrients found in healthy fruits and vegetables. As a result, Americans suffer shocking deficits of such other vital nutrients as magnesium,4 potassium,4 vitamin B55 and B6,5 and vitamin D.6 All of these deficiencies are correctable by taking standardized fruit/ vegetables extracts along with vitamins/minerals that are available in highly concentrated supplement forms.

cardiovascular function81-86 and healthy DNA structure in prostate cells. 87-94 Your daily dose of Life Extension Mix™ provides pomegranate extract standardized to the punicalagins and polyphenol content of up to 2.6 ounces of pomegranate juice … without the calories.

  • Standardized Fruit Extracts — including bilberry fruit, grape seed, and citrus bioflavonoids to protect against oxidative stress, provide healthy circulation throughout the body and maintain healthy DNA … maqui berry and tart cherry for antioxidant benefits that support heart health as well as muscle and joint function95-107 … plus blackberry, cranberry, prunes, elderberry, persimmon, and cherry for multiple benefits.

  • Delphinidins — potent anthocyanin compounds found in dark red fruits that activate the production of nitric oxide, enabling vascular relaxation and supporting blood pressure. 108-110 Delphinidins can also help to control inflammatory processes,111-117 glycation,118 stimulate the immune system, and stabilize blood sugar119,120 helping to control metabolic balance. The content of delphinidins in the new Life Extension Mix™ is equivalent to 3¼ cups of raspberries or 5¾ cups of dried plums.

  • Olive Juice Extract — with polyphenols like hydroxytyrosol that have been shown to protect against LDL oxidation, suppress free radicals, and stabilize cell membranes.121-132

  • Sesame Seed Lignan Extract — to increase human tissue levels of vitamin E,133-135 increase the beneficial effects of fish oils, help regulate LDL oxidation, and help maintain already healthy cholesterol/LDL levels in those already within normal range.136-140

Recommendation 1A
Life Extension Mix™
Dosage: 9 tablets a day in divided doses with meals or as recommended by a healthcare practitioner (Also available in capsule and powder form)

The majority of Americans don’t eat enough fruits and vegetables every day to avoid a host of age-related problems. So, Life Extension Mix™ provides all the high-potency vitamins, minerals, and amino acids needed to form the cornerstone of a comprehensive health maintenance program. It includes:

  • Standardized Vegetable Extracts — including 8 mg of luteolin, a flavonoid (found in parsley, artichoke, basil, celery, and olive leaf extract) that provides DNA protection7,8 from oxidative damage … and suppresses excess levels of cytokines; 9-15 a broccoli mixture with standardized extracts of sulforaphane and glucosinolates, and gene-protecting chlorophyll;16-25 175 mg of D-glucarate (a phytonutrient found in grapefruit, apples, oranges, broccoli, and Brussels sprouts) to support elimination of DNA toxins;26-28 lutein (found in spinach and collard greens) to help maintain critical pigments in the eye macula;29,30 lycopene (from tomatoes) to help maintain DNA structure and protect against LDL oxidation.31-39 Life Extension Mix™ contains 60 times more lutein and 10 times more lycopene than the leading multivitamin tablet. Most multivitamin supplements provide no vegetable extracts at all.

  • Blueberry Extract — with anthocyanins that have been shown to improve memory and help with degenerative changes in aging neurons.40-46 It also contains pterostilbene, which helps maintain already normal lipid and glucose levels,46-50 and (together with blueberry anthocyanins) may help maintain healthy DNA structure. 51-56

  • Standardized Green Tea Extract — with active polyphenols that help maintain healthy DNA structure while inhibiting LDL oxidation and neuronal peroxidation.57-77 A daily dose of Life Extension Mix™ contains 325 mg of a decaffeinated green tea extract with polyphenols (including the potent EGCG) equivalent to drinking 1½ cups of green tea. And green tea powdered extracts are 60%–90% better absorbed in the bloodstream78 … and far more bioavailable than drinking green tea.

  • Standardized Pomegranate Extract — with biologically active punicalagins that are 100% water-soluble, 95% absorbed,79 and highly potent at suppressing free radicals.80 Published studies show pomegranate helps maintain healthy

  • Three Forms of Selenium — sodium selenite, L-selenomethionine, and Se-methyl L-selenocysteine … each providing unique biological benefits. Some scientific evidence suggests that selenium consumption may reduce the risk of certain forms of cancer;141-146 however, the FDA has determined that this evidence is limited and not conclusive.

  • Nutrients to Maintain Healthy Blood Glucose Levels — including chromium, highly absorbable forms of magnesium, a super high-potency biotin,147-158 plus Crominex® 3+ … a stable, biologically active chromium complex with a standardized Indian gooseberry extract and a proprietary form of the adaptogen Shilajit. 500 mcg of chromium as Crominex® 3+ helps support normal cellular glucose absorption, healthy endothelial function, healthy lipid and triglyceride levels, and normal cellular energy production.

  • High Potency Vitamin D3 — critical for maintaining bone density, healthy cell division and immune health.159-172 (Most Life Extension customers should take an additional 5,000 IU of vitamin D and have their blood tested several months after to ensure they achieve optimal vitamin D levels.)

  • Pyridoxal 5’-Phosphate — this metabolically active form of vitamin B6 helps protect against protein and lipid glycation reactions.173-176

  • Methylcobalamin — the form of vitamin B12 that is more efficiently utilized by the body. 177

  • Nicotinamide Riboside (NIAGEN®) — can enhance and support mitochondria, the “power plants” of the cells.178-181 Life Extension Mix™ contains the amount of nicotinamide riboside found in 13 cups of milk.

  • 5-MTHF (5-methyltetrahydrofolate) — Folate helps maintain homocysteine levels within the normal range. And LE Mix™ contains 400 mcg of the bioactive 5-MTHF form of folate which is up to 7 times more bioavailable than ordinary folic acid.

Life Extension Mix™ is the most complete multi-nutrient formula ever designed … with the most popular vitamin and mineral supplements, antioxidants, water- and fat-soluble vitamin C, the ideal form of alpha vitamin E, and botanical extracts that help protect against cellular DNA damage. Additional ingredients enhance beneficial DNA methylation patterns, help maintain already normal glycemic control, and help regulate the oxidation of LDL. You get it all … at the best “cost-per-milligram” value. To view the complete formula for Life Extension Mix™, turn this page. For information about the various forms of Life Extension Mix™ (tablets, capsules, and powder), refer to the Multivitamin section of this Directory, starting on page 117.

Recommendation 1B
This alternative to Life Extension Mix™
is for those who want to take their
nutrients separately

Need a complete multivitamin-mineral supplement to fill the missing gaps? Two- Per-Day provides the greatest potencies that can fit into two daily tablets or capsules … and contains up to 50 times more potency of specific nutrients than conventional “one-a-day” products! Commercial supplements also contain the cheapest form of nutrients without optimal benefits. For example, the 50 IU of synthetic vitamin E in Centrum® Silver® Adults 50+ may provide relatively little vitamin E to the bloodstream. Synthetic vitamin E is distributed throughout the body only about half as much as natural vitamin E.182-185 The daily dose of Two-Per-Day was designed to remedy the widespread deficit of basic nutrients that exists even among multivitamin users. For example, Centrum® Silver® Adults 50+ users get only 1,000 IU of vitamin D daily compared to 2,000 IU in Two-Per-Day. And Two-Per-Day users benefit from the addition of alpha-lipoic acid (the universal antioxidant that helps boost glutathione levels) and Crominex® 3+ (a stable, biologically active chromium complex to help maintain healthy blood sugar levels already within normal range). And Two-Per- Day now contains NIAGEN®, the first commercially available form of nicotinamide riboside, to help combat the aging process. Also included is 400 mcg of the bioactive 5-MTHF form of folate that is up to 7 times more bioavailable than ordinary folic acid.

Since most vitamins are water-soluble and don’t last long in the body, it’s best to take these nutrients at least twice a day. Each Two-Per-Day Tablet or Capsule is sized for ease of swallowing … and priced inexpensively compared to commercial brands that provide a fraction of the nutrients.

A bottle of 120 Life Extension Two-Per-Day Tablets (Item #02015*) retails for $20.00. This represents a two-month supply at the suggested daily dose. You can reduce your monthly cost of the Two-Per-Day Tablets to only $6.75 when four bottles are purchased at the same time. Two-Per-Day is also available in capsule form, retailing for $22.00 for a 120-capsule bottle. A customer buying four bottles of Two-Per-Day Capsules (Item #02014*) would reduce their monthly cost to only $7.50. When looking at the price of many commercial brands that only provide a fraction of the nutrients contained in the Two-Per- Day formula, you can quickly see how affordable it is to obtain the potencies of the most important basic nutrients.

Recommendation 2
Take plenty
of Omega-3s
Super Omega-3 EPA/DHA with
Sesame Lignans & Olive Extract

Multiple scientific studies document fish oil’s broad spectrum of health benefits … ranging from supporting a healthy response to inflammation to promoting heart health.1-48 But commercial fish oil varies widely in terms of purity and potency. So consider this:

1. Stability — Since fish oil easily turns rancid, measuring oxidative by-products is critical to ensure the freshness of the omega-3 fatty acids you swallow.

2. Purity — Cold-water ocean fish rich in EPA/DHA are often contaminated with pollutants like PCBs, mercury, and arsenic. The fish oil you swallow should be purified to reduce contaminant levels to safe ranges. This OMEGA FOUNDATIONS™ supplement features AlaskOmega® fish oil. This sustainably harvested fish oil is made from wild caught cold-water Alaska Pollock and processed in the United States within hours of harvest for exceptional freshness. This pure, fresh fish oil also comes from a Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) certified-sustainable fishery. Which means it actually exceeds industry standards.

3. EPA/DHA consistency — Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are the primary active ingredients in fish. Assaying fish oil to be sure it meets the label claim is important to ensuring you get the desired amounts of EPA/DHA.

Super Omega-3 EPA/DHA with Sesame Lignans & Olive Extract starts with a highly refined fish oil concentrate. A proprietary technology and purification process improves its stability, reduces environmental pollutants to virtually undetectable levels, and protects delicate omega-3 fatty acids against oxidation and peroxidation. This Super Omega-3 formulation meets or exceeds the purity standards set by the International Fish Oil Standards (IFOS™), and thus has received its highest 5-star rating.

The addition of sesame lignans, olive fruit and leaf extract greatly enhances the benefits of this fish oil formula. Here’s how.

  • Sesame lignans inhibit an enzyme that leads to inflammatory factors.49

  • Sesame lignans function as a powerful antioxidant … and adding them to fish oil lowers lipid peroxidation rates50,51 to extend the stability of the oil in the body.

  • Combining fish oil and sesame improves mitochondrial fatty acid burning … to produce more energy, reduce triglyceride levels, and guard against free radicals generated by higher cellular metabolism. 52,53

  • Olive oil contains potent antioxidant polyphenols like hydroxytyrosol. The greater the polyphenol content of olive oil, the more glutathione antioxidant activity, and the less oxidation of LDL54,55 … all of which leads to better cardiovascular health.

  • Fish oil’s EPA/DHA and the olive leaf and fruit’s oleuropein polyphenol both help protect against excess platelet aggregation that can lead to blood clots.56

This formula not only gives you the finest omega-3 fish oil in the world, it also provides a potent olive fruit and leaf extract blend (equivalent to the polyphenol content of 8 to 12 tablespoons of extra virgin olive oil) standardized for hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, verbascoside and oleuropein polyphenols.

A bottle containing 120 softgels of Super Omega-3 EPA/DHA with Sesame Lignans & Olive Extract retails for $32.00. You can reduce your cost to only $21.00 each when four bottles are purchased at the same time. (Item #01982)

For those with a sensitive stomach, Super Omega-3 is also available with enteric coating and retails for $34. With a fourbottle purchase, that cost is reduced to just $23.25 a bottle. (Item #01984)

Life Extension’s Super Omega-3 is also available in a smaller softgel for easier swallowing and retails for $32.00. With a fourbottle purchase, that cost is reduced to just $21.00 a bottle. (Item #01986)

Recommendation 3
Take CoQ10 for
your heart, brain,
kidneys and more
Super Ubiquinol CoQ10 with
Enhanced Mitochondrial Support™

About 95% of cellular energy is produced from structures in your cells called mitochondria. Coenzyme Q10 is incorporated into the mitochondria where it facilitates transformation of fats and sugars into energy. CoQ10’s ability to restore mitochondrial function has a profound effect on overall health1-4 … with beneficial effects to the heart,4-23 brain,4,24-31 kidneys,32-34 and other tissues.4, 35-51 And when CoQ10 levels diminish, the ability of cells to sustain even basic metabolic functions is impaired.

Ubiquinol is the biologically superior form of CoQ10, and an effective neutralizer of free radicals that can damage the polyunsaturated fatty acids of your cell membranes.

Super Ubiquinol CoQ10 with Enhanced Mitochondrial Support™ combines ubiquinol CoQ10 with a proprietary form of the adaptogen Shilajit, clinically shown to double levels of CoQ10 in the mitochondria52 … to restore and sustain cellular energy.

Scientific analysis shows that shilajit itself is rich in essential compounds that promote mitochondrial metabolism. Combining ubiquinol CoQ10 with shilajit supports more youthful cellular energy production than CoQ10 alone. When shilajit is combined with CoQ10, cellular energy production has been shown to increase by 56% in the brain (40% better than CoQ10 alone) … and 144% in muscle (27% better than CoQ10 alone).53

Researchers found that shilajit stabilizes ubiquinol CoQ10 to prolong its action at the cellular level54,55 … and facilitates more efficient delivery of CoQ10 into the mitochondria for greater cellular energy output.56-60

The retail price for a 100-count bottle of 50-mg Super Ubiquinol CoQ10 with Enhanced Mitochondrial Support™ (Item #01425) is $58.00. If you make a four-bottle purchase, the price is reduced to $34.50 per bottle. Each bottle lasts most people about two months based on taking one capsule twice a day.

Some customers who want to take higher doses use the 100 mg or 200 mg size of this unique formulation. The retail price for a bottle containing 60 softgels of 100 mg Super Ubiquinol

CoQ10 with Enhanced Mitochondrial Support™ (Item #01426) is $62.00. A 30-count bottle of 200 mg softgels (Item #01431) also retails for $62.00. If a customer buys four bottles of 100 mg or 200 mg Super Ubiquinol, the price is reduced to $39.00 per bottle. The significantly higher cellular energy gains make these novel CoQ10 formulations a tremendous value “per absorbed milligram.”

Recommendation 4
Optimize your
Vitamin D
blood level

Vitamin D is a fat-soluble prohormone that affects the expression of more than 200 genes in your body.1 It is essential for optimal health. And yet there is a widespread vitamin D deficiency!

You can bring blood vitamin D to optimal levels2 through repeated sun exposure. But sunscreens and low light in winter make that difficult. And the American Academy of Dermatology has reaffirmed that vitamin D should not be obtained from unprotected exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or indoor tanning devices.

So Life Extension recommends that you supplement with 5,000 IU to 8,000 IU of vitamin D3 daily. And take a 25-hydroxyvitamin D blood test after 3 months to assess and adjust your dosage so your optimal blood levels will be between 50–80 ng/mL year-round.

Once vitamin D3 is produced in the skin or consumed in food, it’s converted in the body to a metabolically active form known as calcitriol that does far more than just regulate your body’s calcium balance.3 Vitamin D affects cell differentiation, immunity, insulin secretion, blood pressure regulation, etc.4-40 So maintain optimal levels of blood vitamin D effectively and inexpensively by supplementing daily with 5,000 IU.

Life Extension customers can maintain optimal levels of blood vitamin D effectively and inexpensively by supplementing daily with a 5,000 IU softgel (Item #01713). A two-month supply retails for just $11, but you can purchase at your price for just $8.25 (or even less with a multi-bottle purchase). Other dosages and forms of vitamin D are available, please see the Vitamins section.

Caution: Individuals consuming more than 2,000 IU/day of vitamin D (from diet and supplements) should periodically obtain a serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D measurement. Do not exceed 10,000 IU per day unless recommended by your doctor. Vitamin D supplementation is not recommended for individuals with high blood calcium levels.

Recommendation 5
Support youthful
cellular energy
Mitochondrial Energy
Optimizer with BioPQQ®

Youthful cellular energy is key to longer youth, longer life. And Mitochondrial Energy Optimizer with BioPQQ® is a stateof- the-art nutritional formula that can help you take better care of the little powerhouses in every cell in your body … by protecting delicate cellular structures, enabling cells to perform life-sustaining metabolic processes, even helping generate new mitochondria! This innovative formula helps counteract age-related structural and functional changes and promote the growth of new mitochondria with these unique ingredients:

  • PQQ (Pyrroloquinoline quinone) — triggers growth of new mitochondria in aging cells1 … and activates genes involved in protecting delicate structures within the mitochondria.2-6

  • Carnosine — As humans age, proteins in their bodies become irreversibly damaged by glycation reactions.7 Glycation can lead to alterations of normal cell function.8,9 Carnosine is a powerful anti-glycating agent, and protects neurons against reactive and cytotoxic protein carbonyl species associated with normal aging.9-14

  • Luteolin — Systemic inflammation is involved in most consequences of aging.15,16 Culprits behind inflammatory reactions are pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Luteolin is a flavonoid that has been shown to help suppress these inflammatory cytokines.17-29

  • Benfotiamine — Human mortality studies indicate that ideal fasting glucose levels are between 74–85 mg/dL. Yet many aging people have fasting glucose above 90 mg/dL, which is not optimal. Benfotiamine can activate glucose metabolism and promote already healthy blood glucose levels. In addition, benfotiamine exhibits direct antioxidative capacity and supports healthy DNA function.30-34

  • Pyridoxal 5’-Phosphate — the active form of vitamin B6 that has been shown to protect against both lipid and protein glycation reactions.35-41

  • R-Lipoic Acid — facilitates youthful mitochondrial energy output while guarding against free radicals. Two forms of lipoic acid are sold on the supplement market, but R-lipoic acid is far more potent.42-49

  • Taurine — this amino acid supports neurite growth50 and powerfully protects the mitochondria51 from oxidative damage to enhance energy production within cells.50,52,53 Taurine is prevalent throughout the body54 and found in especially high amounts in the metabolically active cells that require high mitochondrial energy production (brain,54 nerve, and eye cells55 and heart56 and skeletal muscle57).

Taking all of these ingredients separately would be costprohibitive. But you can benefit from all of them in this one cost-effective, comprehensive formula that supports mitochondrial structure, function and formation to help keep you younger and healthier longer. A bottle containing 120 capsules of the Mitochondrial Energy Optimizer with BioPQQ® (Item #01868*) retails for $72.00. If a customer buys four bottles, the price is reduced to $48.00 per bottle.

Life Extension also offers the value-priced Mitochondrial Basics with BioPQQ®, for those consumers who are cost-conscious but still want to support mitochondrial function. For more information on both of these products, please refer to the Energy Management section of this Directory.

Note: It is important to take four capsules per day of the Mitochondrial Energy Optimizer with BioPQQ® in order to benefit from carnosine. The reason for this is because the body automatically metabolizes lower amounts of carnosine into an inert substance, but the body cannot quickly neutralize the amount of carnosine (1000 mg) contained in four capsules of the Mitochondrial Energy Optimizer with BioPQQ® formula.

Recommendation 6
Restore youthful
hormone balance
DHEA Super Miraforte with
Standardized Lignans Advanced Natural
Sex for Women® 50+ Pregnenolone

Aging men and women are often DHEA deficient.1-5 Men over age 40 often have too little free testosterone and less than optimal estrogen levels.6-10 Aging women need to balance their progesterone and estrogen levels.

Life Extension offers low-cost blood test panels designed to help provide the biological information needed to safely achieve youthful hormone balance. To order a comprehensive Male or Female Blood Test Panel, call 1-800-208-3444.

Once you receive your blood test results, you can take them to your doctor … or talk to a Life Extension Health Advisor by calling 1-800-226-2370 about these different options:

  • DHEA is the body’s most abundant circulating hormone. Unfortunately, DHEA production peaks by age 25 … and by age 70 most people’s DHEA levels have declined over 80%. That leads to hormonal imbalances that can affect quality of life.11 Thousands of studies show how DHEA may help retard the effects of aging and promote longevity.12-28 To achieve the DHEA levels of a 25-year-old, men normally supplement with 25-50 mg a day … and women usually take only 15-25 mg a day. Life Extension’s DHEA supplements use a micronized DHEA for maximum absorption and utilization. For information about the different forms and potencies of DHEA, refer to the Hormones section of this Directory.

Caution: Do not use DHEA if you are at risk for or have been diagnosed with any type of hormonal cancer, such as prostate or breast cancer.

  • Pregnenolone, the “mother” hormone of all steroids, increases brain levels of acetylcholine, a key neurotransmitter required for optimal brain function, creating new memories and recalling old information.29-31 Pregnenolone belongs in our Top 12 because it is an important part of any healthy brain and longevity supplement regimen. A bottle of Life Extension’s Pregnenolone (Item #00302) contains 100 50 mg capsules and retails for $26.00. If a customer buys four bottles, the price is reduced to $16.50.

Caution: Pregnenolone may affect levels of other hormones, such as progesterone, estrogen, testosterone and/or DHEA. Do not take this product if you have a history of seizures. Do not take this product if you have breast cancer, prostate cancer, or other hormone-sensitive diseases.

  • Super Miraforte with Standardized Lignans for men offers testosterone-supporting ingredients that naturally help re-establish more youthful testosterone levels. This innovative formulation includes chrysin, which blocks the aromatase enzyme that triggers conversion of testosterone to estrogen … and stinging nettle, which binds to a blood component called sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) to help increase the level of free testosterone.32 Super Miraforte also contains Bioperine®, Muira puama, chelated elemental zinc, Maca and a standardized lignan extract that converts to enterolactone in the intestine for rapid absorption into the bloodstream … because enterolactone has demonstrated anti-estrogen and anti-DHT effects that are particularly important for the aging prostate gland.33,34 Super Miraforte with Standardized Lignans is designed to help re-establish more youthful testosterone levels. A bottle containing 120 capsules retails for $62.00. If a customer buys four bottles, the price is reduced to $42.00 per bottle. The suggested dose is two capsules, twice per day. For more information, refer to the Men’s Health section of this Directory. (Item #01698)

Caution: If you are taking any medication, use only under physician supervision. Men with existing prostate cancer may not be able to use this product. Elevations in free testosterone can unmask an occult (hidden) prostate cancer. Anyone with this concern should have a baseline PSA prior to using this product and a follow-up PSA test 60 days later. If a significant elevation of PSA is found, discontinue this product and advise physician. Do not take more than 15 mg per day of Bioperine®.

  • Advanced Natural Sex for Women® 50+ is a phyto-blend that targets and supports the mechanisms that promote healthy sexual function and libido … while minimizing menopausal symptoms. It includes Cordyceps, a mushroom extract shown to improve sexual function and desire in 86% of women in just 40 days35 … and Maca, a plant root extract that women who took it scored almost 35% better than placebo subjects on a standard sexual function and libido scale after just 6 weeks!36 It also contains three herbal root extracts to balance estrogenic activity that have been shown to inhibit menopausal symptoms by 62% in just 12 weeks!37 For menopausal relief and enhanced sexual health, a daily dose of three capsules of Advanced Natural Sex for Women® 50+ is suggested. A bottle of 90 vegetarian capsules retails for $59.00. If a customer purchases four bottles, the price is reduced to only $34.00 per bottle. For further information about this formulation, refer to the Women’s Health section of this Directory. (Item #01626)

Recommendation 7
brain function
Cognitex® with Brain Shield®

Cognitex® with Brain Shield® contains the latest ingredients shown to provide broad-spectrum protection against the multiple mechanisms involved in neurological decline. And according to an independent study, Cognitex® has been clinically shown to help increase mental focus, promote cognitive planning and organizational acuity, help retain spatial relationships (like the distance between cars while driving), and improve memory recall and recognition — all within as short a time frame as two weeks!1 The daily dose of Cognitex® with Brain Shield® provides:

  • Gastrodin is an extract typically derived from the Chinese orchid (Gastrodia elata), provides powerful support for the brain’s normal defenses and regenerative mechanisms.2-10 Gastrodin’s multiple modes of action work together with other nutrients to improve circulation and shield the brain from age-related insults.9,10

  • UMP (Uridine-5’-monophosphate) is critical to optimal brain function and the health of neuronal cell membranes.11-14

  • A-GPC (alpha-glyceryl phosphoryl choline) boosts acetylcholine, a critical neurotransmitter that declines with age.15-20

  • Sharp-PS® (phosphatidylserine) promotes already-normal neuronal cell membrane function and structure.21,22

  • Vinpocetine helps get more oxygen and blood to brain cells by dilating blood vessels and reducing blood viscosity.23,24

  • Grape seed extract enhances blood vessel tone and elasticity, thus boosting oxygen flow to the brain.25-28

  • Wild blueberry extract has been shown to inhibit oxidative and inflammatory changes in brain cells believed to be involved in memory decline.29-32

  • Ashwagandha extract helps alleviate mental fatigue and keeps you feeling more alert, more focused without stimulants.33-35

  • Proprietary NeuroProtection Complex Blend (standardized extracts of hops and rosemary) helps suppress inflammatory cytokines.36-39

  • Pregnenolone is a neuroactive hormone that may be especially beneficial to the brain.40-45

A bottle containing 90 softgels of Cognitex® & Brain Shield®, with and without pregnenolone, retails for $62 and $60, respectively. If a customer purchases four or more bottles, the price drops to $39.75 each and $39 each, respectively. If a customer purchases 10 or more bottles, the price per bottle with or without pregnenolone drops to $37.50 each and $36 each, respectively. (Item #01897, Item #01896)

Life Extension also offers the value-priced Cognitex® Basics, for consumers who want a more cost-effective cognitive support product. For more information on all three Cognitex® versions, please refer to the Brain section of this Directory.

Caution: Pregnenolone may affect levels of other hormones, such as progesterone, estrogen, testosterone and/or DHEA. Do not take this product if you have a history of seizures. Do not take this product if you have breast cancer, prostate cancer, or other hormone-sensitive diseases. If you are taking anti-coagulant or anti-platelet medications, or have a bleeding disorder, consult with your physician before using this product.

Recommendation 8
your bones
Bone Restore

Why do men and women who take calcium supplements still suffer from a loss of bone mineral density? One reason is that most people don’t take enough calcium to offset the amount being lost in the course of normal aging.

Another problem overlooked by most doctors is the fact that bone density loss is not just associated with calcium deficiency, but also with an insufficient intake of a host of other nutrients including magnesium and vitamin D3.1-6 In order for calcium to help maintain healthy bones, adequate amounts of vitamin D3,3,7 zinc,8-10 magnesium,11 manganese,12 and other nutrients should be available so that calcium and phosphorus can be incorporated into the bone matrix. Additionally, many forms of calcium are not well absorbed.13-15

While loss of bone mineral density is more commonly experienced by women, aging men can also have this issue.16 Both men and women may suffer significant deficits of magnesium if they do not supplement. Magnesium is needed to maintain strong bones, and is critical to promoting a healthy vascular system.17,18 In fact, magnesium is critical for facilitating hundreds of enzymatic reactions that our bodies require to maintain optimal health.19,20

Bone Restore is designed to support healthy bone density and strength. Bone Restore provides 700 elemental milligrams of calcium from three different forms, along with the critically important nutrients magnesium,11,21-23 boron,1,3,24-29 zinc,8-10,30 silicon,31-33 manganese,12,34 and vitamin D7,35-38 needed for healthy bones.

In fact, the boron/carbohydrate complex in this formula is identical to what is found in fruits and vegetables and is more bioavailable than boron citrate. Scientific research has established the beneficial effects of boron on the strength of bones and joints.26-29 Additionally, Bone Restore contains 300 mg of magnesium.

Women should take four capsules daily of Bone Restore, whereas men may only require three capsules daily. Maintaining an optimal vitamin D blood level, ensuring adequate vitamin K intake, and maintaining youthful hormone balance also helps maximize bone density.

The retail price for 120 capsules of Bone Restore (Item #01726) is $22.00. If a customer of Life Extension buys four bottles, the price is reduced to only $14.25 per bottle. Bone Restore is also available with Vitamin K2 (MK-7) for those not getting their vitamin K from Once-Daily Health Booster or Super K with Advanced K2 Complex. The retail price for 120 capsules of Bone Restore with Vitamin K2 (Item #01727) is $24.00. If a customer of Life Extension buys four bottles, the price is reduced to only $16.50 per bottle.

Note: Those taking the anti-coagulant drug Coumadin® (warfarin) should order the original Bone Restore without vitamin K2.

Recommendation 9A
Maintain healthy
prostate function
Ultra Natural Prostate

A huge percentage of men over age 50 suffer from prostate-induced discomforts. Ultra Natural Prostate contains these scientifically substantiated nutrients to help protect the prostate gland and maintain its healthy function:

  • Standardized lignans from flax seed and the Norway spruce knotwood convert to enterolactone, which has demonstrated anti-estrogen and anti-DHT (5α-Dihydrotestosterone) effects that are of particular importance for the aging prostate gland.1-3

  • AprèsFlex® is an ultra-absorbable extract of the Boswellia herb. AprèsFlex® supports normal inhibition of 5-lipoxygenase4-6 (or 5-LOX for short), an enzyme that is associated with undesirable cell division changes.7,8 Boswellia extract has a positive impact on a variety of pathways that help maintain and support healthy prostate tissue.9,10 And AprèsFlex® absorbs into the blood 52% better than previously available boswellia extracts.11

  • Stinging and dwarf nettle root extracts. Testosterone converts to estrogen at higher rates as men age. Prostate cells are sensitive to estrogen’s growth stimulatory effects. Nettle helps support prostate cells against excess estrogen levels.12,13 In one large double-blind study, nettle extract significantly supported urinary tract comfort and normal urine flow rates compared with placebo.14

  • Saw palmetto extract. Saw palmetto has been shown to interfere with DHT activity in the prostate, inhibit the alpha-adrenergic receptor activity (to support normal urinary flow), and help regulate inflammatory reactions in the prostate gland.15,16

  • Pumpkin seed oil enhances the composition of the free fatty acids in saw palmetto to enhance its benefits.17

  • Pygeum is an extract that helps suppress inflammatory prostaglandins and leukotrienes to help keep the prostate gland placid and comfortable.18-20

  • Beta-sitosterol, the most biologically active constituent of pygeum, is also included for added support.21-23

  • Graminex® Flower Pollen Extract™ has been shown to relax smooth muscle tone of the urethra, counteract DHT, and help regulate inflammatory reactions.24-29

  • Boron is a mineral that helps protect bones and slows elevation of PSA, probably by protecting against proteindegrading enzymes in the prostate gland.30,31

  • Lycopene is the carotenoid that makes tomatoes red ... and helps maintain healthy DNA function in prostate cells.32-36

  • Phospholipids enhance absorption of active compounds.

The retail price for 60 softgels of this standardized formula (Item #01898) is $38. If a customer buys four bottles, the price is reduced to $26.25 per bottle. If a customer buys 10 bottles, the cost drops to only $24.00 per bottle for the most comprehensive prostate protection formula in the world!

Recommendation 9B
Preserve optimal
breast health
Breast Health Formula

Detrimental factors like the aging process, along with the daily bombardment of damaging environmental estrogen-like compounds, can affect the cellular structure of a woman’s breast.1-3 Research shows that specific botanical extracts can positively influence cellular status and remove some of the anxiety women face about maintaining a healthy balance of estrogens.

Estrogen is broken down to several important metabolites in the body including the good 2-hydroxyestrone and the bad 16 alpha-hydroxyestrone. Scientists have identified nutrients like indole-3-carbinol (I3C) that can tip the delicate balance of estrogens in favor of the good form.4,5

Women seeking to proactively restore their youthful hormonal balance can take a phytonutrient-based formula that helps support healthy estrogen activity and detoxification. Some of the active ingredients in the Breast Health Formula are:

  • Phytoestrogens that function as selective estrogen receptor modifiers to help block certain estrogen receptor sites on cells, thus blocking bad estrogen from exerting its harmful effects6

  • Plant lignans that boost beneficial enterolactone levels and favorably alter estrogen metabolism7-9

  • Cruciferous Vegetable Extracts (such as I3C) that effectively increase 2-hydroxyestrone while reducing undesirable 16 alpha-hydroxyestrone10,11

  • Calcium D-Glucarate to safely facilitate the removal of harmful estrogen from the body12-14

  • Vitamin D to restore healthy genetic regulatory switching to aging cells15

The retail price for 60 capsules of this comprehensive Breast Health Formula (Item #01699) is $34. If a customer buys four bottles, the price is reduced to only $22.50 per bottle. A small price to pay for broad-spectrum breast health support!

Recommendation 10
Super Bio-Curcumin® with BCM-95®

Curcumin, found in the spice turmeric, gives curry its unique flavor and yellow color. A member of the ginger family, its medicinal uses date back over 6,000 years in the Middle and Far East. But its uses in modern medicine weren’t extensively studied until the mid- 1970s. Since then it has gained attention for its multiple health benefits, including its ability to inhibit enzymes that help produce inflammation in the body.1

The benefits of curcumin affect virtually every organ system in the body. So no optimal health regimen should be without it.

The problem is that curcumin is neither absorbed nor retained well in the blood. So Life Extension uses BCM-95®, a patented, bioenhanced preparation of curcumin shown to reach up to 7 times higher concentration in the blood than standard curcumin.2 This curcumin is organically grown, cultivated to maturity, and processed to preserve and deliver the turmeric root’s most complete nutritional profile.

In studies comparing the effects of BCM-95® to conventional curcumin, researchers observed:3,4

  • Nearly twice the support for immune health.

  • About twice the support for healthy inflammatory response.

  • Almost double the antioxidant support.

And a separate study indicated that this antioxidant-rich curcumin extract5 provided powerful support for heart health.

A 400 mg vegetarian capsule of Super Bio-Curcumin® with BCM-95® supplies the equivalent of 2,772 mg of commercial curcumin supplements. A bottle containing 60 vegetarian capsules of Super Bio-Curcumin® retails for $38. If a customer buys four bottles, the price is reduced to only $26.25 per bottle. (Item #00407)

Curcumin is also available in a combination formulation as Black Cumin Seed Oil with Bio-Curcumin® to inhibit inflammatory factors and provide immune support. A bottle of 60 softgels retails for $32. If a customer buys four bottles, the price is reduced to only $22.50 per bottle. (Item #01710)

Life Extension also offers Advanced Bio-Curcumin® with Ginger and Turmerones. After curcumin is extracted from turmeric, what remains is turmeric oil rich in compounds called turmerones. Combining these potent compounds with BCM-95® Bio-Curcumin® increases the amount of curcumin inside the cell. This formula also provides the greatest concentration of standardized ginger compounds, including beneficial gingerols and shogaols, to complement the health benefits of curcumin. A bottle of 30 softgels retails for $30. If a member buys four bottles, the price is reduced to only $20.25 per bottle. (Item #01808)

For additional products that support a healthy response to inflammation, see the Inflammation Management section of this Directory.

Recommendation 11
Fill in the gaps
Once-Daily Health Booster
(formerly Super Booster)

Once-Daily Health Booster functions as the perfect complement to Life Extension Mix™ or Two-Per-Day because it includes health-promoting nutrients that are difficult to fit into those dry-based formulas … starting with vitamin K.

There are three forms of vitamin K that the human body utilizes to maintain healthy arterial structure and elasticity1 while helping to direct calcium to bones.

  • Vitamin K1: Found in green vegetables, it is tightly bound to plant fiber so only a fraction is absorbed into the bloodstream. Supplementation ensures ample K1 blood levels.

  • Two forms of Vitamin K2: Found only in small amounts in foods many people avoid such as meat, dairy, egg yolks … so a K2 supplement is essential. It should include both MK-4, the most rapidly absorbed form of K2 … and MK-7, the form of vitamin K that boasts a very long half-life in the body.

Once-Daily Health Booster provides higher doses of the longer-lasting MK-7 plus vitamin K1 and MK-4. It also contains nutrients with health benefits so well-documented, people often want to take higher amounts than what they normally get in their daily multivitamin. Here are a few of them:

  • Gamma-tocopherol: Scientists have shown that people supplementing with the alpha-tocopherol form of vitamin E should also consume gamma-tocopherol. Alpha-tocopherol displaces gamma-tocopherol in the body, which may result in a lack of protection against certain types of free radicals.2,3 One problem with gamma-tocopherol is that it has a high turnover rate in the tissue, making it disappear relatively quickly.4

  • Sesame lignan extract: This has been shown to increase levels of gamma-tocopherol throughout the body.5 In human and animal studies, administration of sesame lignans increases tissue and serum levels of all vitamin E analogs, including gamma- and alpha-tocopherol.5-7 This is critical because gamma-tocopherol quenches reactive nitrogen species, such as the peroxynitrite radical,8 which plays a major role in the development of cardiovascular problems.9,10

  • Chlorophyllin: Provides protection against DNA gene mutation, especially those found in unhealthy foods.11,12

  • Lycopene: This red carotenoid inhibits LDL oxidation and also protects DNA integrity.13-18

  • MacuGuard® Carotenoid Phospholipid Blend: Contains trans-zeaxanthin, meso-zeaxanthin, and lutein to support eye health and healthy vision.19-21

  • Blueberry extract: Boosts DNA repair and sustains healthy blood sugar levels already within normal range.22,23

Most of the ingredients in Once-Daily Health Booster are fat-soluble and should be taken with the heaviest meal of the day. Because that meal often contains the most dietary mutagens, it is appropriate to consume the chlorophyllin contained in Once-Daily Health Booster at that time.

The cost of purchasing these ingredients individually greatly exceeds the price of Once-Daily Health Booster. Taken separately, the individual ingredients in Once-Daily Health Booster would cost two to three times more! The retail price for a bottle of 60 softgels (Item #01981) is $52.00. If a customer buys four bottles, the price is reduced to only $36.00 per bottle.

Caution: If you are taking anti-coagulant or anti-platelet medications, or have a bleeding disorder, consult your healthcare provider before taking this product.

Recommendation 12
optimal blood
glucose levels

Blood glucose spikes commonly occur after eating, and can last hours … even a whole day. Those spikes can unfavorably alter gene expression in a way that may accelerate the processes of aging.1,2 Even people on reduced-calorie diets may still create too much glucose due to excess glucose-6-phosphatase, an enzyme, which prompts the release of additional stored glucose from tissues, even though there is already abundant glucose in the blood.

By contrast, maintaining fasting glucose levels in the range of 70-85 mg/dL and not allowing after-meal glucose levels to spike higher than 40 mg/dL over the fasting value, favorably influences the body’s longevity genes.3-7 And there are several proven ways to achieve healthy glucose levels. Many approaches that promote healthy glucose levels also promote healthy levels of insulin,8-11 LDL,9,12-16 triglycerides,17-19 and C-reactive protein20 — thus promoting better overall health.

For a healthy, after-meal blood glucose reading, look for a normal, in-range reading that increases no more than 40 mg/dL above your fasting value. So if your fasting glucose is 80 mg/dL, your after-meal glucose should be no higher than 120 mg/dL.

Multi-Pronged Approach to
Supporting Healthy Blood Sugar Levels

Despite a healthy diet and exercise, blood sugar levels can rise due to a number of factors including excess gluconeogenesis whereby the liver produces glucose from protein. Another issue is the rapid conversion of any starch, including whole grains, into glucose. The result is that even health-conscious, active people can experience higher than desired blood sugar levels as they age.21,22 An all-natural, multi-pronged approach has been designed to support the natural balance of key glucose pathways. Tri Sugar Shield® provides three plant-derived nutrients that, through their rich array of complementary mechanisms,23-36 afford an unrivalled level of optimal, broad spectrum support for healthy glucose metabolism in aging individuals within normal range.

Tri Sugar Shield® contains sorghum bran extract which has long been cultivated in Asia (and now is grown in Africa, India, China, Australia and the USA) and helps maintain healthy blood sugar levels, among those in the normal range, by modulating four different mechanisms.

First, it balances the rate of sugar manufacture in the liver (gluconeogenesis).24 Sorghum has also been shown to promote insulin sensitivity.25 It is also responsible for regulating PPAR-gamma, a metabolic thermostat controlling glucose metabolism,26 as well as the enzyme alpha-amylase, which in turn controls the release of sugar found in starch.23

The second main component of Tri Sugar Shield® is mulberry leaf, which has been used in Chinese traditional medicine for centuries. This mulberry leaf extract targets the alphaglucosidase enzyme to regulate conversion of starch into glucose;26-28 supports glucose transporter GLUT4 that moves glucose out of the bloodstream and into muscle and liver cells;29,30 and promotes insulin sensitivity.31

Tri Sugar Shield® also supplies phloridzin, a natural polyphenol found in various fruit trees.32 Phloridzin helps maintain healthy blood sugar levels, among those in the normal range by targeting carrier protein SGLT1, in turn helping to block the absorption of glucose into the bloodstream33,34 as well as targeting carrier protein SGLT2, in turn supporting glucose elimination via urine.35,36 A bottle of 60 vegetarian capsules of Life Extension’s Tri Sugar Shield® retails for $36. If a customer buys four bottles, the price is reduced to $24.00 per bottle. (Item #01803)

Bonus Recommendation
Benefit from
Aspirin Therapy

Aspirin has an immediate and lasting effect on blood platelets, making them less likely to clump together and form a blood clot. More than 50 randomized trials have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of aspirin as a cardiovascular drug.1

Low-dose aspirin is recommended for people over 45 with at least one cardiovascular risk factor and no conditions that are contraindicated with aspirin use. Risk factors for heart disease include male gender, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, cigarette smoking, lack of exercise, and family history of heart attack or stroke.2

Less well-known is the fact that aspirin is also a powerful anticancer agent. A breakthrough publication in the January 2011 Lancet determined that overall relative risk of cancer death in eight trials involving over 25,000 patients was reduced by about 21%.3

Caution: The daily use of aspirin might not be right for everyone. Studies have indicated that for patients with Type 2 diabetes, low-dose aspirin as primary prevention may not reduce the risk of cardiovascular events.4 Please note that non-compliance may cause aspirin “resistance”, i.e., hyporesponsiveness to aspirin in a platelet function test.5 Aspirin “resistant” patients or “poor responders” to aspirin (which occurs in 10% to 20% of patients) may have higher risk for recurrent cardiovascular ischemic events.6-8 If you are considering daily low-dose aspirin therapy, please consult with your healthcare practitioner.

Warning: Ask a doctor before use if you have asthma, ulcers, bleeding problems, or stomach problems (such as heartburn, upset stomach or stomach pain) that persist or recur.